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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is Tampa big enough (or dense enough) for rail?

2. Will fixed-guideway transit service work here with our suburban pattern of development?

3. Wouldn’t it be cheaper to build more/wider roads?

4. What are the best locations for rail in our county?

5. How many riders and at what cost?

6. Why would we look at a new funding source?

7. What would the proposed 1% sales tax be used for?

8. What would it cost me personally?

9. Will an increased tax rate will make our county a less attractive place to live?

10. Could investing in transit help our economy?

11. Is transit a vital public service?

12. How would investing in transit benefit me personally?

13. How much would the 1% sales tax cost the average household in Hillsborough County?

14. How do we know where future growth will be?

15. Have other cities that have invested in transit experienced growth you can measure?


Answers

1. Is Tampa big enough (or dense enough) for rail?

Tampa is the heart of a major metropolitan economic region. The multi-county Tampa Bay region is the 19th largest metropolitan area in the country, by population, and the 13th largest television market.

Of the 25 largest metropolitan ares in the country, only Tampa Bay and Detroit lack rail or rail projects.

Tampa Bay’s economic center is Hillsborough County. More people commute into Hillsborough from surrounding counties than commute out.1 Eleven percent of Pinellas County workers and 24% of Pasco County workers come to jobs in Hillsborough. (Figure 1)

In fact, the number of people inside the City of Tampa grows by half during the workday due to people commuting in.2
In 2035, 20% or more of Hillsborough County jobs are forecast to be filled by residents of nearby counties,3 even taking into consideration the commercial growth that is forecast for adjacent counties.

The amount of traffic in Hillsborough County, measured in vehicle miles traveled every day, is more than twice that of any nearby county.4 (Figure 2)

Other “sunbelt” metropolitan areas have center cities with a population density similar to the City of Tampa. Many of these other metropolitan areas have already invested in rail transit to serve their central areas, or have plans well underway. (Table 1)

 


12000 US Census Data, Residence MCD/County to Workplace MCD/County Flows for Florida
2Census 2000 PHC-T-40 Estimated Daytime Population
3Tampa Bay Regional Planning Model, FDOT District 7
4State Highway System Report 1: All Roads, FDOT Transportation Statistics Office, 2008

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2. Will fixed-guideway transit service work here with our suburban pattern of development?

While that pattern of development was more prevalent in the 1990’s, Tampa is part of a trend, nationwide, where substantial reinvestment and redevelopment is occurring in central cities. This trend, described in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) 2010 report “Residential Construction Trends in America’s Metropolitan Regions”, shows that redevelopment continues in many urban neighborhoods despite the slow economy.


Compared to the early 1990’s, the share of construction in urban neighborhoods was up 28 percent in mid-sized metropolitan regions that have promoted development around transit. For example, Denver, Colorado’s building permits accounted for 32 percent of its region, up from 5 percent in the 1990’s. Sacramento, California accounted for 27 percent of its region, up 9 percent.


The trend is even more significant in the largest metropolitan regions where for example, New York City accounted for 63 percent of the building permits in its metropolitan area, up from only 15 percent in the early 90’s. Chicago is up to 45 percent of the building permits in its region from just 7 percent in the 1990’s.


Tampa is up to 18 percent of the permits issued in the region as opposed to 12 percent in the early 1990’s. The percentage of redevelopment in existing urban areas of our community would very likely rise to levels comparable with other sun belt cities that have added light rail if Hillsborough County were to construct such a system, reducing further the trend toward urban sprawl.

The St. Petersburg Times reported that a shift has occurred regarding where people from outside of Florida come from when relocating to Tampa Bay. The old mantra was Midwesterners came down Interstate-75 from Michigan, Ohio and neighboring states to the Tampa Bay region seeking Midwest housing styles and some open space around them. That is no longer the case. Of the 10 counties outside of Florida that most feed Tampa Bay’s population these days, eight are from the region encompassing New York south to Washington, D.C. Only two Midwestern counties, giant Cook County which includes Chicago, and Wayne County, which includes Detroit are included among our top 10 feeder counties. This means more people are now moving to the Tampa Bay region who are accustomed to higher density housing and mass transit.

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3. Wouldn’t it be cheaper to build more / wider roads?

In many parts of our county, yes. But in the central, most congested, most heavily developed areas, widening roads is very expensive and has significant impacts.

As an example, a circa-1990 master plan for the Interstate Highways in Tampa called for widening through the center of Tampa, some of which has now been completed. Just the portion of I-275 north of Downtown is now estimated to cost $2.2 Billion or more,5 to create a total cross-section up to 12 lanes wide. If these lanes were built, I-275 traffic congestion would still be more than 28% over capacity6 in 2035, needing perhaps 16 lanes rather than just 12.

By contrast, the cost to build a rail line in the same corridor, heading north from Downtown Tampa to the University of South Florida and adjacent medical complexes, is currently estimated at $0.9 Billion.7 This is less than half the cost for a transportation facility which can carry the same or more people.

Unlike a highway, which often requires the expensive and time-consuming process of buying land to add lanes, capacity can be easily added to a rail line by running service more often and/or buying vehicles. If you only need to carry two lanes' worth of traffic, adding lanes is cost-effective. But, if you need to carry eight lanes' worth of traffic, rail is cost effective.

 

5Hillsborough MPO 2035 Long Range Transportation Plan - Highway, Bicycle and Pedestrian Projects 10-07-09
6Tampa Bay Regional Planning Model, Needs Assessment model runs for 2035 Long Range Transportation Plans, conducted by FDOT District 7 with Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, and Hernando MPOs, June 2009
7MPO 2035 Long Range Transportation Plan - Public Transit Needs Assessment 9-18-09
; This cost estimate incorporates a 30% contingency factor because detailed engineering drawings have not yet been prepared.


Even if funds were available to build all the road lanes that are needed, traffic congestion would still be a significant problem. In many cases, roads cannot be widened further because it would destroy neighborhoods, business districts or parks. We are reaching the limit of our ability to address traffic congestion with road construction.

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4. What Are the Best Locations for Rail in Our County?

In Hillsborough County, four major activity centers have a concentration of: (Figure 5)

  • 20% of the county’s population, and
  • 43% of the county’s jobs, in…
  • only 8% of the county’s land area.


Connections between these centers have high demand for transportation.

  • The Westshore Alliance estimates almost 100,000 jobs in its business district.
  • The Tampa Downtown Partnership estimates 50,000 jobs in its business district, which does not include Tampa General Hospital (6,000 jobs), the University of Tampa (6,000 students), or the commercial and industrial areas of Ybor City.
  • The University of South Florida serves 46,000 students. It also employs 13,000 people, and the adjacent hospitals employ another 12,000 people.
  • Tampa International Airport serves 18 million passengers each year, or about 30,000 passengers a day.

 

 

 

Some of our most congested roads serve these major centers. All of the following major roads are in the top 25 most congested roads in Hillsborough County, measured in vehicle hours of delay per mile.

Downtown to Westshore

  • I-275 from the Howard Frankland Bridge to Downtown and northward
  • Kennedy Boulevard

  • SR 60

To Brandon

  • I-4 from Downtown eastward past I-75
  • SR 60/Adamo Drive

To USF Area

  • Both I-275 and I-75
  • Fowler Ave
  • Bruce B. Downs Boulevard

 

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5. How many riders and at what cost?

Variations of rail systems connecting these centers have been tested for potential ridership using the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Model, which uses future population and job locations to forecast traffic congestion.

A 25-mile, “U” shaped rail line connecting the USF area, Downtown Tampa, and Westshore Business District to Tampa International Airport and southern Carrollwood could have 24 thousand riders on a typical weekday in 2035 (approximately 980 daily boardings per mile).8

For comparison, Phoenix’s East Valley LRT was forecast at approximately 1300 riders per mile on a typical weekday, and Charlotte’s Blue Line LRT at 950. Both of these rail corridors are located in areas of similar density to Tampa, and both have surpassed their ridership forecasts.9 In fact, Phoenix averaged about 2100 riders per mile on weekdays in October 2009, an increase of 57% above the initial forecast.10

Based on the forecast for Tampa Bay ridership, the cost to build the “U” shaped rail line equates to about $7.50 per weekday trip over 40 years. (In this calculation, there is no cost for weekend trips.)

By contrast, the 2009 rate for trips provided by the Hillsborough County Sunshine Line paratransit service is $21 per trip. An expanded transit system could reduce reliance on the expensive door-to-door paratransit provided to seniors and persons with disabilities who cannot access local bus service to reach essential medical appointments.

If the “U” shaped rail line were constructed in Hillsborough County, with an expanded bus network connecting to it, the total amount of traffic congestion in the county is forecast to be 5-6% lower in 2035. The actual number of reduced hours spent in traffic congestion is equivalent to saving a quarter of a million people 15 minutes every day.11

 


8Tampa Bay Regional Planning Model, Cost Affordable Alternative model runs for 2035 Transportation Plans, conducted by FDOT District 7 with Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, and Hernando MPOs, June-October 2009
9Assumptions vs. Actual Costs & Ridership: National Examples,” Tampa Bay Area Regional Transportation Authority, April 2009
10Phoenix Business Journal, “Metro Light Rail Marks 1.12M Riders,” November 10,2009
11Tampa Bay Regional Planning Model, Cost Affordable Alternative model runs for 2035 Transportation Plans, conducted by FDOT District 7 with Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, and Hernando MPOs, June-October 2009

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6. Why would we consider a new funding source?

Funding for transportation improvements comes from federal, state, and local sources, and in some cases from public-private partnerships.

In an analysis of all the road widenings, bus facilities, rail lines (including the corridors described above), sidewalks and trails, advanced traffic management systems, and other transportation facilities that are needed to achieve goals such as less traffic and fewer crashes, there is a significant gap between costs and available funding, as illustrated in Figure 6.12 Costs are upwards of $30 billion, and existing funding sources are less than $10 billion.

According to a 2008 study by the Center for Urban Transportation Research, funding shortfalls for transportation are prevalent around the state of Florida, and have been growing. Shortfalls were highest in areas with:

  • Rapid growth
  • Reliance on state & federal (rather than local) funding sources.

A proposed 1% local-option sales tax, which must be approved by voters in a popular referendum could generate an additional $7 billion, and potentially attract $3-4 billion in new federal and state grants. These new sources could play a big role in helping to meet our community's needs. (Figure 8)


12 Cost and revenue estimates prepared for MPO 2035 Long Range Transportation Plan

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7. What would the proposed 1% sales tax be used for?

The 1% sales tax that is proposed to support transit is only partially dedicated to rail. It is also planned to supplement county and city funds for major roads, and to support an expansion of the bus system that will tie into the rail lines and connect to neighborhoods and outlying areas. The new sales tax funding would be divided with 25% to non-transit facilities, and the remainder split between rail and bus services.13 (Figure 9)

The expansion of the bus system will provide service to 66%, and frequent service to 55% of Hills-borough’s residents & jobs. Today only 13% of residents & jobs have frequent service.14 (Figure 10)


Having a new local source of funding for transportation has the potential to attract other funds for which the county was not previously eligible. Both the federal government and the State of Florida offer matching grant programs to assist with major transit facilities (called “New Starts” programs). Because Hillsborough County has not been able to access these funds in the past, federal gas taxes collected in this county have paid for rail projects in other states, such as Phoenix, Salt Lake City, and Charlotte.

On average, the State of Florida gets back only:

  • 86 cents on every $1 of federal gas tax paid in highway project funding
  • 63 cents on every $1 of federal gas tax paid in transit project funding.15

 


13Calculations prepared for the MPO 2035 Long Range Transportation Plan for funds available 2011-2035.
14Transit Level of Service Technical Memorandum, Hillsborough County MPO.
15FDOT Office of Transportation Planning, historical trend for rate of return.

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8. What would it cost me personally?

Revenues from a 1% sales tax in Hillsborough County are estimated at $173,777,183 per year by the Florida Legislative Committee on Intergovernmental Relations (www.floridalcir.gov).

Sales taxes are paid by residents, commuters who reside in other counties, tourists, and businesses.

The tax on items worth more than $5000 is capped. In other words, the maximum amount of tax is $50 on the purchase of any single item, such as a car or boat (assuming a 1% sales tax).16

A calculation based on 2008 IRS tax tables of the amount of sales tax paid by average income households in Hillsborough County (please see Question 13 below) suggests:

  • the average family household would pay $142 per year
  • the average solitary householder would pay $85 per year

 


16Local Government Financial Information Handbook, Florida Legislative Committee on Intergovernmental Relations, August 2009

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9. Will an increased tax rate will make our county a less attractive place to live?

By comparison, a number of other metro areas already have sales tax rates as high or higher, and some have a state income tax in place as well.

Two of our neighboring counties are considering sales tax increases similar to Hillsborough. Both of those counties have implemented local-option gas taxes at the same rate as Hillsborough, and neither is assuming in its Long Range Transportation that those gas taxes will expire, as Hillsborough is.

 

Sales Tax Rates, Various Sunbelt Cities - September 2009

City Total Rate State Income Tax?
Sacramento   8.75% Yes
San Diego 8.75% Yes
Phoenix/ Maricopa County 8.3% Yes
Charlotte-Mecklenburg* 8.25% Yes
Dallas 8.25% No
Houston 8.25% No
Atlanta 8% Yes
Tampa Bay/Hillsborough Co. 7% today, considering future 1% increase
Tampa Bay/Pasco County 7% today, considering future 1% increase
Tampa Bay/Pinellas County 7% today, considering future 1% increase
Tampa Bay/Polk County 7% today, considering future 1/2% increase
Salt Lake City  6.85% Yes

 

Local-Option Gas Tax Rates, Florida Counties – August 2009

Sarasota County 12¢/gal
Miami-Dade 10¢/gal
Pinellas County  7¢/gal
Pasco County   7¢/gal
Hillsborough County 7¢/gal – scheduled to expire by 2013

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10. Could investing in transit help our economy?

Studies that have been conducted in other metropolitan areas17 have the following results to report:

  • Home values are up 4-17% near rail.
    Philadelphia, Miami-Dade, Southern New Jersey, Portland, San Diego
  • Commercial values are up 10-30% near rail.
    San Diego, San Francisco, Dallas
  • Every $1 billion invested in public transit supports an average of 36,000 jobs.*

 

 

Better mobility helps businesses. The value of business-related travel time savings in Hillsborough County is estimated at $36 million every year if the the proposed 1% sales tax is implemented.**

 


17 “Please see Question 15, Have other cities that have invested in transit experienced growth you can measure?”
** "Economic Impact of Long Range Transportation Plans - 2035 LRTP," Hillsborough MPO.

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11. Is transit a vital public service?

Cities or entire regions were faced with this dilemma and in many cases began to subsidize and then acquire private transit operations. Implicitly the answer was yes. Much debated reasons are given: save energy; reduce pollution; provide mobility - especially for lower income, employment, elderly, etc.; improve quality of life – e.g., commute times, sprawl; public safety; and support economic development (attract private investment). Some smaller cities tried going without public transit and found themselves demonstrating through social service costs and business losses that all of the debated reasons are valid concerns.

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12. How would investing in transit benefit me personally?

As noted above, today only 13% of Hillsborough County residents & jobs have access to frequent transit service.18

Nationally, households near public transit drive an average of 4,400 fewer miles than households with no access to public transit.19 For some households, this makes it possible to own one less car.

According to AAA, the cost of owning, operating and maintaining a vehicle is roughly $8,000 per year for a mid-sized sedan. If there is an additional cost for parking, the cost goes up to over $9,000 per year.

In the Tampa Bay metro area, working families spend an average of $10,600 per year, or 33% of household income on transportation – making it one of the most expensive areas to live and drive in the nation.20

 

 


18 Transit Level of Service Technical Memorandum, Hillsborough County MPO
19American Public Transportation Assoc., “Riding Public Transit Saves Individuals $9,062 Annually,” Oct. 2009.
20Center for Housing Policy, A Heavy Load, October 2006.

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13. How much would the 1 % sales tax cost the average household in Hillsborough County?

Family Households

  • Comprise 64% of the households in Hillsborough County
  • Average family size: 3.1 persons
  • 50th-percentile household income: $58,700
    • Half of the county’s families have higher income than this, half have lower income. Also known as median income.
  • Average household income: $77,852
    • Income amounts for families in Hillsborough County have this midpoint. Also known as mean income.

Sales Taxes Paid in 2008:

  • Family with 50th-percentile income:            $119 on each 1% sales tax
    For household income $50,000-$60,000, claiming three federal income tax exemptions.
  • Family with average income:                   $142 on each 1% sales tax     
    For household income $70,000-$80,000, claiming three federal income tax exemptions.
  • Larger family with 50th-percentile income:       $132 on each 1% sales tax
    For household income $50,000-$60,000, claiming five federal income tax exemptions.
  • Larger family with average income:             $158 on each 1% sales tax     
    For household income $70,000-$80,000, claiming five federal income tax exemptions.

Non-Family Households

  • Comprise 36% of the households in Hillsborough County
  • Most are householders living alone (these comprise 29% of the households in Hillsborough County).
  • 50th-percentile household income: $32,921
    • Half of the county’s non-family households have higher income than this, half have lower income. Also known as median income.
  • Average household income: $44,832
    • Income amounts for non-family households in Hillsborough County have this midpoint. Also known as mean income.

Sales Taxes Paid in 2008:

  • Solitary householder, 50th-percentile income:       $73 on each 1% sales tax     
    For household income $30,000-$40,000, claiming one federal income tax exemption.
  • Solitary householder, average income:             $85 on each 1% sales tax     
    For household income $40,000-$50,000, claiming one federal income tax exemption.

Sources
Based on IRS Standard Deduction for State/Local Sales Taxes, 2008
Household Statistics: 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, US Census Bureau
Sales Taxes Paid: 2008 Instructions for Schedules A & B, Form 1040, US Internal Revenue Service

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14. How do we know where future growth will be?

The location and intensity of growth is shaped by public policy as well as by market forces.

  • The Urban Services Area boundary has been effective, with 87% of growth occurring inside it during 1995-2004. (Hillsborough County Comprehensive Plan Evaluation and Appraisal Report)

Our population and job growth forecasts make that assumption.

  • Our growth forecast assumes that 90% of new jobs and households will locate inside the Urban Services Area.
  • Our old forecasting method assumed growth would occur primarily on vacant parcels of five acres or more. By this method, Manhattan would have been considered completely built out in the 1880s.
  • Our new method still focuses on vacant parcels, but assumes some infill and redevelopment will occur as well. Under the old method, the population of the unincorporated county (which has the majority of large vacant parcels) would grow 60% by 2025; under the new method it is forecast to grow 53%. As a point of reference, actual growth in the unincorporated county was 46% during 1990-2005.


The future will not be entirely like the past. Urban infill and redevelopment is already playing a greater role.

  • In the greater Downtown Tampa area, population increased by 120% (more than doubled) between 2000 and 2009. This trend was not foreseen in growth projections prepared five years ago.
  • Development in the greater Downtown Tampa area worth $1B was completed just during 2006-2008. The many new units are currently being absorbed, with commercial vacancy at about 20%. (Downtown Tampa Quick Facts October-December 2009, Tampa Downtown Partnership)
  • In the greater Westshore Business District area, a real estate market study estimates that if rail is built, demand for residential units would be 50% higher, and demand for employment space 43% higher, than currently assumed in the MPO’s growth forecast. (Hillsborough County Transit Oriented Development Study, Market Assessment & Development Potentials, Hillsborough MPO)

A modest shift in growth trends, to include more urban infill and redevelopment in the future, would have benefits.

  • Under a “business-as-usual” growth scenario, the amount of land consumed by growth in Tampa Bay could nearly double by 2050. Under other scenarios that include some infill and redevelopment, the same number of jobs and households could fit in a more compact space, with benefits such as:
    • Relieving traffic – with shorter trips and more options to get around, reducing vehicle miles by 25%
    • Preserving natural areas – protecting 67% more open space, 75% more wetlands, and 80% more wildlife habitat
  • In Emerging Trends in Real Estate-2010, the Urban Land Institute reports that next-generation projects will orient to infill, urbanizing suburbs, and transit-oriented development. Smaller housing units-close to mass transit, work and 24-hour amenities-gain favor over large houses on big lots at the suburban edge.

 


(One Bay Scenario Guide, www.myonebay.org)

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15. Have other cities that have invested in transit experienced growth you can measure?

Transit Stimulates Private Investment

Every $1 billion invested in public transportation infrastructure supports approximately 47,500 jobs, proving that transit continues to be an economic engine and job creator.

  • Dallas -- The total value of real estate projects attributable to the presence of a DART Rail station rose $4.26 billion over an eight year period.1
  • Dallas -- As of 2007, development projects located within the Dallas Area Rapid Transit Service Area are projected to increase state and local tax revenues in excess of $127 million.1
  • Portland -- A $57 million streetcar has generated almost $3 billion in development along the corridor since it opened in 2001.2
  • Evanston, IL -- Areas near transit zones have seen the number of businesses increase by 27% from 1997-2005 while between 2000-03 annual retail sales grew by 11.2% or $17.1 million.3
  • Evanston, IL -- Between 1990-2005, Evanston added more than 2,472 housing units • in transit zones. Population increased by 6% along the transit corridors compared to just 1.4% for the remainder of the city.4

Transit Increases Real Estate Value

Home Value

  • Southern New Jersey -- Growth along the Hudson/Bergen railline has generated 10,000+ new housing units conservatively estimated at $5.3 billion.5
  • Southern Philadelphia -- There has been a 3.8% premium for median home prices in census tracts served by the rail line.6
  • Portland Oregon -- There exists a 10.6% premium for homes within 500 meters of stations.
  • Dade County -- Up to 5% higher rate of appreciation in real estate sales value compared to the rest of the City of Miami.

Commercial Property Value

  • San Francisco Bay Area -- 10-15% rent premium for rental units within 1/4 mile of BART.7
    Dallas Area Rapid Transit -- 30% premium for retail uses; 25% higher property value than similar real estate elsewhere in area. 8
  • San Diego -- Premiums of 91% were found for commercial properties near commuter rail stations.8
  • Washington, D.C. -- Every 1,000 ft closer to rail stations raises the value of commercial property $2.30/sq.ft, or a total of $70,139 on average per a 30,000 sq.ft. building. 8

Transit Has a Positive Impact on the Economy

Economic Activity means:

  • Better access to jobs;
  • Less wasted time due to congestion;
  • Increased productivity;
  • Spin-off increases in activity through suppliers and services.

  • Los Angeles -- $15.0 billion in construction for public transit, transportation projects will generate $32.1 billion over a 30 year period and more than 210,000 annual full-time equivalent jobs in Los Angeles County.8
  • Charlotte -- Has competed with Atlanta, a metropolis three times its size, and won major employers such as GMAC Financial Services, in part because of its investment in light rail.9
  • Chicago -- The transit system is estimated to directly and indirectly provide over $12 billion in economic benefits and 120,000 jobs.10
  • Dallas -- Transit has led to $3.7 billion in economic activity and created 32,000 new jobs.1
  • Columbus, OH -- In 2002, the city raised $800 million in city, county, state and federal funds for infrastructure improvements helping to attract $1.5 billion in private investment.11
  • Santa Clara, CA -- Being within walking distance of an LRT station in Santa Clara County increased land values on average by over $4, or by around 23 percent in relation to the mean per square-foot value of sampled commercial parcels of $17.51.12
    For every $1 invested in public transportation, $6 is generated in economic returns.13


     

    PUBLIC TRANSIT & ECONOMIC GROWTH: OTHER CITIES’ EXPERIENCE:
    END NOTES

    1 Clower, Terry, Bernard Weinstein and Michael Seman. Assessment of the Potential Fiscal Impacts of Existing and Proposed Transit-Oriented Development in the Dallas Area Rapid Transit Service Area. Denton, TX: Center for Economic Development and Research, University of North Texas, 2007.

    2 Portland, Oregon. Office of Transportation and Portland Streetcar, Inc. Portland Streetcar Development Oriented Transit. Portland Oregon, 2006.

    3 Gorewitz, Cali and Gloria Ohland. “Communicating the Benefits of TOD: The City of Evanston’s Transit-Oriented Redevelopment and the Hudson Bergen Light Rail Transit System.” Reconnecting America: Center for Transit Oriented Development. 6 July 2009.http://www.reconnectingamerica.org/public/display_asset/bestpractice159?docid=154

    4 Zimmerman, Maria. “Northstar as a Catalyst for Strengthening Livable Communities.” Reconnecting America: Center for Transit Oriented Development. PowerPoint. 7 July 2009. http://www.reconnectingamerica.org/public/display_asset/northstarppt

    5 Wells, Jan S. and Martin Robins. Development Impact of the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Transit System. New Brunswick, NJ: Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Rutgers University, 2006.

    6 Diaz, Roderick B. “Impact of Rail Transit on Property Values.” APTA 1999 Rapid Transit Conference Proceedings Paper. (1999) 6. July 2009. http://www.apta.com/research/info/briefings/documents/diaz.pdf

    7 Zimbabwe, Sam. “Transit Oriented Development: Factors and Elements of Success.” Reconnecting America: Center for Transit Oriented Development. 4 Sept. 2008. 6 July 2009 http://www.reconnectingamerica.org/public/display_asset/flapa01sz

    8 Freeman, Gregory and Myasnik Poghosyan. Construction Impact of LA Metro’s Proposed Transportation Projects, 2009-2039. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation, 2008.

    9 Chapman, Dan. “Rivalry to be Economic King of the South Heats Up.” Atlanta Journal Constitution. 10 May, 2009.

    10 Mass Transit Capital Funding: The Need to Maintain, Enhance, and Expand. Chicago, IL: Regional Transportation Authority, 2008.

    11 Cortese, Amy. “New Rail Lines Spur Urban Revival.” New York Times. 13 June 2009.

    12 Cervero, Robert and Michael Duncan. “Transit’s Value-Added: Effects of Light and Commuter Rail Services on Commercial Land Values.” Transportation Research Record. V. 1805 (2002).

    13 Public Transportation Gets Our Economy Moving. Washington, DC: American Public Transportation Association, 2009. 7 July 2009. http://www.publictransportation.org/fac

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